水下爆炸对重力坝的毁伤效应及最优爆距

黄谢平 孔祥振 陈祖煜 方秦

黄谢平, 孔祥振, 陈祖煜, 方秦. 水下爆炸对重力坝的毁伤效应及最优爆距[J]. 爆炸与冲击, 2023, 43(5): 052202. doi: 10.11883/bzycj-2022-0113
引用本文: 黄谢平, 孔祥振, 陈祖煜, 方秦. 水下爆炸对重力坝的毁伤效应及最优爆距[J]. 爆炸与冲击, 2023, 43(5): 052202. doi: 10.11883/bzycj-2022-0113
HUANG Xieping, KONG Xiangzhen, CHEN Zuyu, FANG Qin. Damage effects of underwater explosions on gravity dams and optimal standoff distances[J]. Explosion And Shock Waves, 2023, 43(5): 052202. doi: 10.11883/bzycj-2022-0113
Citation: HUANG Xieping, KONG Xiangzhen, CHEN Zuyu, FANG Qin. Damage effects of underwater explosions on gravity dams and optimal standoff distances[J]. Explosion And Shock Waves, 2023, 43(5): 052202. doi: 10.11883/bzycj-2022-0113

水下爆炸对重力坝的毁伤效应及最优爆距

doi: 10.11883/bzycj-2022-0113
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(52178515,52078133,51879283)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    黄谢平(1996- ),男,博士研究生,huangxieping@zju.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    孔祥振(1988- ),男,博士,副教授,ouckxz@163.com

  • 中图分类号: O383;TV312

Damage effects of underwater explosions on gravity dams and optimal standoff distances

  • 摘要: 为研究不同爆距水下爆炸对重力坝的毁伤效应,并探讨是否存在“最优爆距”,基于离心模型试验建立了炸药-库水-空气-重力坝结构的全耦合数值模型,并设计了60组数值计算工况。不同工况水深均为600 mm,炸药量为2.2 g,重力坝模型几何比尺为1/80,包含5组爆深(50~250 mm),每组爆深对应12组爆距,爆距范围为10~200 mm,相应比例爆距范围为0.077~1.54 m/kg1/3。对比分析了不同爆距水下爆炸对重力坝的毁伤程度,并定量比较了重力坝平均损伤、单元删除率、应力、应变等参数。结果表明,对于重力坝整体结构破坏,如重力坝整体弯曲导致的拉伸破坏,水下爆炸对重力坝的毁伤效应存在“最优爆距”,即随着爆距增加重力坝毁伤程度先增加后降低;与之类似,随着爆距的增加,重力坝上游坝面损伤区域的平均损伤、重力坝单元删除率、坝踵最大拉应力平均值和坝踵最大拉应变平均值先增加后降低且在40 mm爆距附近达到最大值。保持水深、炸药量和重力坝几何模型相同,5组不同爆深近水面水下爆炸对重力坝毁伤效应的“最优爆距”均在40 mm附近,表明近水面水下爆炸时爆深对“最优爆距”不存在显著影响。
  • 图  1  炸药-库水-空气-重力坝结构的全耦合数值模型及大坝尺寸

    Figure  1.  Numerical model of the fully coupled explosive-water-air-dam system and dam dimension

    图  2  数值预测的大坝破坏与离心模型试验UE-01结果对比[6-7, 29]

    Figure  2.  Comparison of dam failures obtained by numerical simulations and centrifuge test UE-01[6-7, 29]

    图  3  数值预测的大坝破坏与离心模型试验UE-02结果对比[6-7, 29]

    Figure  3.  Comparison of dam failures obtained by numerical simulations and centrifuge test UE-02[6-7, 29]

    图  4  数值预测气泡脉动过程[8]

    Figure  4.  Bubble oscillation predicted by the numerical simulation[8]

    图  5  试验、数值和理论预测气泡周期(Tb)和最大半径(Rbm[8]

    Figure  5.  Bubble period (Tb) and maximum size (Rbm) predicted by centrifuge tests, numerical simulations, and the theoretical model[8]

    图  6  爆深为50 mm时不同爆距水下爆炸下重力坝的损伤

    Figure  6.  Damage clouds of dams due to underwater explosions at different standoff distances with the detonation depth of 50 mm

    图  7  爆深为100 mm时不同爆距水下爆炸下重力坝的损伤

    Figure  7.  Damage clouds of dams due to underwater explosions at different standoff distances with the detonation depth of 100 mm

    图  8  150 mm爆深不同爆距水下爆炸下重力坝的损伤

    Figure  8.  Damage clouds of dams due to underwater explosions at different standoff distances with the detonation depth of 150 mm

    图  9  ψRφRR关系

    Figure  9.  parameters ψR and φR varies with standoff distance R

    图  10  平均损伤δ与爆距R的关系曲线

    Figure  10.  Average damage δ versus the standoff distance R

    图  11  50 mm爆深不同爆距水下爆炸下重力坝破坏图(显示侵蚀单元)

    Figure  11.  Failure patterns of dams due to underwater explosions under different standoff distances with detonation depth of 50 mm (eroded elements shown)

    图  12  重力坝单元删除率与爆距R的关系曲线

    Figure  12.  The element erosion rate of the gravity dam versus the standoff distance R

    图  13  中间坝对称轴的最大z向应力

    Figure  13.  The maximum z-stress curve along the axis of the middle dam

    图  14  中间坝对称轴坝踵处最大z向应力的平均值与爆距R的关系

    Figure  14.  Average of the maximum z-stress at the heel of the axis of the middle dam versus the standoff distance R

    图  15  左边坝对称轴的最大z向应变

    Figure  15.  Maximum z-strain curve along the axis of the left dam

    图  16  左边坝对称轴坝踵最大z方向最大应变的平均值与爆距R的关系

    Figure  16.  Average of the maximum z-strain at the heel of the axis of the left dam versus the standoff distance R

    表  1  混凝土本构模型参数

    Table  1.   Parameters required in the concrete model

    a1a2/Pa−1d1d2c1c2εfrac
    0.58760.25 × 10–30.041.536.930.015
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  离心模型试验方案[6-8, 29]

    Table  2.   Schemes of the centrifuge tests[68, 29]

    TestG/gW/gL/mmR/mmHw/mm
    UE-01802.210020600
    UE-02501.1100100600
    UE-03501.1300300600
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  上游坝面损伤面积占比θ和损伤区域的平均损伤δ

    Table  3.   The damage area ratio θ and the average damage δ of the dam upstream face

    R/mmθ δ
    L=50 mmL=100 mmL=150 mmL=200 mmL=250 mm L=50 mmL=100 mmL=150 mmL=200 mmL=250 mm
    100.81590.83080.85970.85690.84900.24510.25190.22680.23100.2172
    200.82720.83320.87180.86750.86530.25690.27330.25120.25270.2263
    300.84780.85260.86640.88310.87540.26080.27430.26420.26020.2353
    400.81950.85950.87450.88170.87450.26110.27860.26950.26430.2395
    500.83050.87930.86960.89890.87180.25400.26490.26980.25230.2362
    600.83190.84150.86750.89330.87710.26160.26120.26730.24530.2353
    700.84160.87480.87850.89360.87650.24530.25100.24940.23090.2296
    800.84180.85880.88980.86680.88310.23350.24430.23630.19960.2156
    900.84150.86640.86280.89920.88730.22380.22800.22650.21660.2104
    1000.83900.87270.86930.89140.88720.20860.22100.21450.20980.2002
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-23
  • 修回日期:  2022-05-21
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-05-27
  • 刊出日期:  2023-05-05

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