The correlation characteristics of transmitted and reflected waves in the process of impact of the gas-solid interface by the gaseous detonation wave are of great engineering significance. A one-dimensional theoretical model was established to analyze the process of the detonation wave impacting the gas-solid interface. The changes were analyzed in the pressure and interface velocity on both sides of the interface after detonation waves with different initial pressures reaching the gas-solid interface. The process of gas-solid interface impacted by gas-phase detonation wave was numerically simulated. In the simulation, the space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element method(CE/SE) and the elementary reaction mechanism were used to simulate the gaseous detonation, and the Immersed Boundary Method(IBM) was used to simulate the fluid-structure interaction. The pressure distribution and rules of velocity change of partial reflection wave of gas and the waveform and velocity characteristics of stress wave transmitted into solid were analyzed. The experimental device of the impact of the piston by the gaseous detonation was built for further verification. The results show that after the gaseous detonation wave reaches the gas-solid interface the elastic wave in the exponential form is transmitted in the solid and a shock wave is reflected in the gas zone at the interface. The rarefaction wave after the detonation wave intersects with the reflected shock wave, which weakens the reflected shock wave. With the intersection process, the pressure after the reflected shock wave decreases, and the wave velocity becomes faster. The pressure in the intersection area of the original sparse wave and the reflected sparse wave remains uniform. Finally, the reflected shock wave becomes stable, and the gas-solid interface forms a constant state. Under different initial pressures of the same mixture, the ratio of the maximum pressure to the detonation pressure in the process of the impact of the detonation wave remains stable. The theoretical model is consistent with the calculated value and experimental data of related physical quantities of the feature points.