摘 要：研究典型战斗头盔对爆炸冲击波致颅脑冲击伤的防护效能。首先开展了50g TNT距有无头盔防护下头部模型1m处爆炸的抗爆试验，采集了有无防护下头模前额、颅顶、颅后冲击波超压并进行了对比分析；建立了具有典型颅脑结构的头部有限元模型并进行爆炸冲击波加载，对试验工况进行了仿真再现，通过试验结果验证了仿真模型有效性，同时利用数值仿真对不同工况下冲击波流场变化规律进行分析；进一步利用数值仿真研究了泡沫衬垫对头盔防护能力的影响。研究结果表明，典型战斗头盔可使前额空气超压衰减为无防护时的54.5％，但是会使颅后空气超压增强为无防护时的2.19倍，对颅后冲击波防护产生负面效果；头盔悬挂中泡沫衬垫能消弱头盔对颅后防护的负面效果，提高头盔对冲击波的防护能力。
Abstract: To study the protective effect of the combat helmet against traumatic brain injury induced by blast wave, an anti-explosion test was carried out for 50g TNT from the head model with and without helmet protection at 1m. The frontal, parietal and posterior cranial blast wave overpressure of the head model with and without helmet protection were compared and analyzed. The finite element model of the head with typical cranial structure was established and the blast wave loading was carried out to simulate the test conditions. The validity of the simulation model was verified by the test results. At the same time, the variation rule of the blast wave flow field under different conditions was analyzed by numerical simulation. The effect of foam liner on helmet protection capability was studied by numerical simulation. The results show that the typical combat helmet can attenuate the frontal air overpressure to 54.5% of that without protection, but can enhance the posterior cranial air overpressure to 2.19 times that without protection, which harms the protection of posterior cranial. The foam padding in helmet suspension can reduce the negative effect of the helmet on cranial posterior protection and improve the protective ability of the helmet against blast wave.